Place Names of South Australia - A
Albro - Alexander, Mount
A subdivision of section 307, Hundred of Adelaide by the South Australian Company in 1923; now included in Felixstow. It comprised 40 allotments along either side of Ashley Avenue.
After exhaustive research it was impossible to arrive precisely at a definitive nomenclature of this subdivision. However, the following facts appear to be a clue to solving the puzzle. John Adam Muller (1819-1909) was born in Wurtemberg, Germany and arrived in South Australia in the Ascendant in 1849.
His son, A.L.A. Muller (1872-1936) was appointed secretary of the South Australian Company on 7 March 1923, ie, about seven months before formal approval was given to the plan for "Albro".
In Wurtemberg, Germany, there is a range of hills called "Rauhe Alb", the literal translation being "rough alpine".
(Sources - BRG 42/24 - Minutes of SA Company,
7 September 1872, page 10d,
13 March 1909, page 48d,
Times World Atlas,
page 64 (G7).)
Samuel Alderman (1843-1920), who leased what are now sections 124-27, Hundred of Coglin in the 1880s. Another dam of the same name stands on section 219, Hundred of Nackara and was named after James Alderman, brother of Samuel; born at Gawler River in 1848 he died at Nackara on 16 August 1916.
Another 'Alderman Dam' School was situated about 12 km south-west of Nackara, its first teacher being Catherine A. McDonald in 1898; it closed in 1911
Information on the dam is in the Register,
19 September 1883, page 5g:
The dam was the only supply of water in the Hundred of Nackara that selectors could depend upon and, in September 1883, a petition was forwarded to the authorities in Adelaide 'praying that steps be take to clean out Alderman's dam on the northeast travelling stock track.' In addition it was stated that, since 1 June 1883, 3,000 cattle and 60,000 sheep had been watered there.
The word is an Old English form of 'old gate' and in the days of King Edgar (958-975) it was spelt 'ealdgate'. An early gazetteer of South Australia shows the local name as 'Aldgate Pump'. Coincidentally, there is a pump at Aldgate in London near the corner of Leadenhall and Fenchurch Streets.
The town was laid out by Hills Land and Investment Company on part section 92, Hundred of Noarlunga in 1882, taking the name, no doubt, from the local hotel, the 'Aldgate Pump', whose first licensee was Richard Dixon Hawkins on 23 July 1864. He was born in London on 26 April 1819 and arrived in the Lady Fitzherbert in 1842. Street names such as Fenchurch, Euston and Kent Roads carry the London motif to its logical conclusion. The village was advertised as:
- ... A retreat from the heat and dust of the city. Every soul who can afford it will have a habitation in the hills... The rich people will have a chateaux [sic]... There are shaggy slopes that reach up to the summit... and murmurs of clear mountain brooks.
An Essay on Aldgate and Its Hotel
The name was first applied in the Mount Lofty ranges when Richard D. Hawkins gave it to an hotel, the 'Aldgate Pump', in 1864. He was born in London in 1819 and the word is an Old English form of 'old gate', while in the days of King Edgar it was recorded as 'Ealdgate'. The pump once stood outside the little inn that occupied the site of the present hotel. There, from a trough, thirsty bullocks and sweating horses drank after a long, stiff climb over the Tiers, while their master did likewise in the inn. Indeed, the enterprising mine host erected a sign that read - 'Drink and let thy cattle drink also.'
For those interested in the science of toponymy an opinion of its efficacy, or otherwise, was expressed by a censorious citizen:
The name of Aldgate must be ranked amongst the worst examples of imported nomenclature. From the point of euphony there can be no objection to the name for it is musical, but from the aspect of meaning it as senseless as the word 'Surplus' in a national budget.
But Aldgate is not the only piece of London nomenclature, for street names such as Fenchurch, Euston and Kent Roads carry the London motif to its logical conclusion, while the little rise above the hotel on the Mount Barker Road was called Holborn Hill - another most inappropriate name for those familiar with that crowded place of inhabitation in London.
Extensive alterations were made to the hotel in 1898 when new dining rooms were added together with six new bedrooms. Lighting by way of acetylene gas was installed by Messrs Fearn & Goss in 1899 and magnificent chandeliers installed in the dining room:
The handsome dining saloon is perhaps the prettiest of its kind in the colony and its appointments were described as being 'perfect' and its embellishment shows what may be done in the way of decorative art. A panelled dido beautifully picked out in delicate tints of blue and gold runs around the room, whilst the walls are adorned with splendid paintings of native birds and flora...
The town was created in 1882 by the Hills Land and Investment Company at a time when the hills railway was making its way across the ranges. The village was advertised as:
A retreat from the heat and dust of the city. Every soul who can afford it will have a habitation in the hills... The rich people will have a chateaux [sic]... There are shaggy slopes that reach up to the summit... and murmurs of clear mountain brooks...
The following year the infant village's railway station was to become the terminus for the Hills railway from 14 April 1883 until 27 November 1883 when the line was extended to Nairne.
With the opening of the Wesleyan Church in February 1884 Aldgate could, to the orthodox term, be styled a township, possessing as it did an hotel, store and post office, and blacksmith's shop, together with two handsome residences in the most conspicuous part of the township. The church was designed by Daniel Garlick and constructed of local freestone by Messrs Pullin & Torode.
In 1884 the Hon. George W. Cotton introduced a Bill into the Legislative Council to provide for the survey and leasing to working men of small blocks of land not to exceed 20 acres. It was thrown out on the ruling of the president that it should have been introduced in the House of Assembly. The working men's block clauses were afterwards inserted in he Lands Act of 1885 and passed. In 1886 and 1889 several properties on an alluvial flat near Aldgate were described:
[It is] cleared and cultivated on which are growing all the vegetables usually found in a market garden in the hills. A piggery in the corner of the block contains three pigs nearly ready for the butcher and a number of small ones just entering on a useful career.
On an adjoining block, in addition to these things, there were 26 colonies of bees. Another, on a bend on the Onkaparinga, had enclosed his garden with a fence of post, wire and stubbs, hare proof. This man grew and dried about four hundredweight of tobacco, but it was nearly all spoilt by rain through a defective roof on his shed.
It was refreshing after a long tramp over stringybark hills, gullies and swamps to strike the first block. The garden attached was ablaze with pansies and other flowers and looked a paradise of beauty, showing as it did to advantage by the gloom of the adjacent swamp. There were a few blocks further advanced, but a great many not so far. The extent under cultivation varied from a few rods up to 1½ acres, potatoes and vegetables forming the main crops... I came across a leaseholder far from any main road who held 20 acres at an annual rental of £26... He had worked it for three years [but] so far it did not pay but he was in hopes it would ín the 'sweet by-and-by.' Here we have a glipmse of the encouragement offered the toiler by the extreme liberality of our land legislation. Need we wonder that our railways don't pay and that in time of depression our population makes tracks?
There was a branch of the Homestead League at Aldgate and one of the local churches was used as a meeting place for 'blockers'. However, the means of access and the size of the building rendered it unsuitable for the purpose and, accordingly, a decision was taken to build a place of their own at Mylor, where they purchased a town allotment upon which a blockers' institute was erected.
By 1893 the Aldgate Valley accommodated about 300 'blockers'; some had occupied their holdings for five or six years, but many only had sufficient money to put up a slab hut, while others indulged in the luxury of a stone cottage. The majority of them went to and from their place of employment in the train, putting their leisure time at improving their small holdings. In the majority of cases fruit and other trees were planted, while nearly all of them grew vegetables. A correspondent to the weekly press voiced his opinion of the system in 1893 and in closing took a parting shot at local school facilities that catered for the districts of Aldgate and Mylor:
I have had occasion to visit any number of these small holdings and I find that if it had not been for the people having their small piece of land they would have to go to the government for some assistance... There are at present time over 8,000 blockers in the colony. All I can say that it is impossible to estimate the amount of good that is being done. The late Hon. G.W. Cotton should have a monument placed over his grave.
It is a shame proper accommodation is not given to the children, for their parents are deserving toilers in the hills... I see that a deputation waited upon the Minister of Education and he has promised to do all in his power so that the good folk of Aldgate Valley may look for a better building shortly.
At the same time another citizen expressed concern at the facilities provided at the school:
Crossing a small footbridge over the Aldgate Valley Creek I came upon a small chapel now used as a State school. Here I made a halt. The teacher, a wise looking gentleman, answered my call and before me appeared a sea of faces; and then I could hear the dear children with smiling faces say - 'Oh, now we will get a new school with playgrounds and shelter too.' They evidently thought I was the superintendent of government buildings.
Who is to blame I do not know... I found that the room is only 18 x 30 and inconveniently crowded, there being over 70 children present and hardly elbow room; no closet, no shed, and the rainfall in May was over 10 inches and the teacher had to walk over three miles to his residence. The bridge across the creek is dangerous without a doubt and in floodtime the approach is altogether too dangerous for children...
Aldgate Creek broke its banks in June 1902 following a severe thunderstorm and, as most of the houses were built along it, considerable damage and inconvenience realloted. The flood found its way into Mr Mortimer's store and soon kerosene cases, full of lighting fuel, floated away on the swollen stream. The proprietors were absent at the time but several residents waded nearly waist deep to rescue the absconding cases and other articles of merchandise. Mrs Watts, the popular landlady of the hotel, saw the ground floor of her inn flooded and willing hands assisted her in keeping down the water and pumping continued during the night. Mr Bell's store was saved from damage by having the doorways barricaded with bags of sand while all the footbridges over the creek were washed away. It was 13 years since a similar flood had visited the locality.
To conclude this brief insight into various aspects of the history of Aldgate the following description of the town in 1925 by a roving reporter under the pseudonym of B.L.P. may be a fitting close:
Given such possibilities for the picturesque as cross roads and wooded hill slopes, tumbling creek and a pump for a central effect, one feels that something better might have resulted from the early efforts to establish Aldgate township. Whatever its charms may have been in the past, the little hamlet itself presents a particularly unattractive and uncared for appearance at the present day.
The business portion of the district, comprising the blacksmith's forge, the tinsmith's the post office and handful of small shops straggles disconsolately along a stretch of the main road, while on the opposite side a row of dilapidated hoardings disfigure the embankment that slopes upwards to the railway line. The ubiquitous motor has replaced the slow bullock wagon, and no store is complete now without its petrol sign; but teamsters still water their thirsty horses at the old Aldgate pump.
One realises that difficulty in sprucing up Aldgate township, situated as it is along one of the busiest highways of the hills, and so fated to dwell beneath a haze of white powdery dust from the almost continuous traffic and - a still more destructive agency - the fine, free-handed 'let some one else clean it up' attitude of summer picnickers. One would like to see an improvement committee appointed at Aldgate to institute receptacles for holiday refuse and to insist upon their use; to tear down unsightly signboards and to keep in sweeter remembrance the forlorn little enclosure that guards the Soldiers' Memorial, where the blackberry brambles sprawl over the neglected beds and the winds sigh a requiem for the silent brave.
Aldgate is worthy of better local conditions, for the hills that rise above the township are among the most beautiful in all the glorious sweep of our ranges, where every hollow is a cup of beauty and every height steeps mind and eye in the glory of the universe.
It was the terminus for the Hills railway from 14 April 1883 until 27 November 1883 when the line was extended to Nairne. On the opening day to Aldgate the locomotive stalled in the Blackwood tunnel (since replaced by a bridge) when the firebars collapsed and the Vice-regal party was showered with soot and cinders.
A sketch of the hotel is in the Pictorial Australian in
April 1883, page 57;
19 November 1898, page 7e,
19 August 1899, page 16e.
An obituary of Thomas Bartlett, hotelier, is in the Register,
18 March 1925, page 8h.
A history of the town and photograph are in the Chronicle,
7 and 14 September 1933, pages 48 and 45-57.
The town is described in the Chronicle,
23 February 1884, page 7c.
Photographs are in the Chronicle,
12 August 1905, page 30.
An obituary of a proprietor, Thomas Bartlett, is in the Observer,
21 March 1925, page 36b.
A field naturalists' excursion is reported in the Register,
9 March 1886, page 3g,
16 October 1895, page 3h,
26 October 1897, page 6e,
22 May 1914, page 5c,
23 May 1922, page 5c,
10 October 1922, page 5g.
The Aldgate Valley School opened in 1889 and became "Aldgate" in 1898;
it was changed to "Heathfield" in 1914. See
4 May 1895, page 14d,
4 May 1895, page 13b,
2 June 1896, page 7c,
7 November 1896, page 7d,
9 December 1896, page 6e.
"From Poverty to Progress" is in the Chronicle,
27 April 1889, page 9e.
A white freestone quarry is described in the Register,
5 June 1891, page 5b.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural Primary & Secondary - Building Stone.
"Among the Blockers" is in the Register,
13 November 1886, page 7e,
20 November 1886, page 29b:
This locality sadly disappoints in point of significance all who have heard of the metropolis of the Hills Railway. The finest thing connected with Aldgate is the highway leading to Adelaide. Starting on foot from the station 'when the evening sun is low', the pedestrian will find, as open to his view, the hills undulating to the plains and the expanding prospect beyond, that he is placed 'where scenes are grand.' Aldgate is composed of a store to let and two or three businesses gasping for life. The surrounding country is highly capable of sustaining population, but the lands in the immediate vicinity of the station and the frontages along the main roads have fallen into the hands of Land Companies. Hence the price of land effectually debars from settlement the rude democracy, an element necessary to the formation of the community.
Also see Express,
19 August 1889, page 3e,
"The Homestead Blockers" on
5 December 1892, page 3f,
"Aldgate Valley Blockers" in the Chronicle,
24 June 1893, page 5d,
22 July 1893, page 8b,
17 November 1894, page 32e,
6 November 1893, page 3e,
"A Ramble Amongst Aldgate Homestead Blocks" is in the Register,
13 November 1894, page 5g,
"A Blocker's Grievance" in the Chronicle,
17 October 1896, page 19e.
Also see Place Names - Hundred of Cotton.
A cricket club meeting is reported in the Observer,
7 August 1897, page 20d.
Local floods are discussed in the Chronicle,
28 June 1902, page 11a.
Also see South Australia- Natural Disasters - Floods.
James Melrose's Glenwood property is described in the Register,
19 January 1903, page 5c.
"Minda - The Proposed New Home" is in the Express,
9 February 1903, page 2d.
Also see Place Names - Brighton.
A proposed public park is discussed in the Register,
23 November 1908, page 4h and
a new Hall on
1 December 1913, page 10c.
"Rare and Curious Flowers" in the district is discussed in the Advertiser,
30 November 1911, page 11e, Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Miscellany
"Through Aldgate Valley" on
11 and 23 December 1911, pages 11a and 8a.
"Thunderbolt in the Hills" is in the Register,
7 September 1912, page 15a,
14 September 1912, page 50c.
A photograph of a vigilance committee is in the Observer, 20 December 1913, page 32.
Information on a hall is in the Observer,
20 December 1913, page 40e,
on a kindergarten hall on
31 October 1914, page 15a.
The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Thomas Whibley is reported in the Register,
27 December 1913, page 16a.
"Heroes of the Hills - An Anzac Memorial" is in the Register,
18 December 1916, page 6b. Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen.
An interesting letter in respect of a memorial is in the Advertiser,
10 April 1922, page 13d:
Heroes of the Hills - An Aldgate Memorial
Saturday, 16 October 1916 was a day of considerable importance at Aldgate when a reserve and an obelisk, erected in the memory of the men, who had volunteered for active service from within a radius of four miles of the hills town, were opened and unveiled. Mr. R. Hancock, the local station master, was the originator of the movement and, with a strong committee, had solicited funds for the purpose and he received a gratifying response.
The monument that stands on the railway recreation reserve on the northern side of the Aldgate railway is of reinforced concrete and is 16 feet in height. The reserve was allocated by the Stirling West District Council to the Railways Commissioner who, in turn, dedicated it to the local public for recreation purposes. At the time it was expected that the obelisk would bear the names of 250 soldiers - It was hoped that the name plates would be available for the unveiling but, unfortunately, they were not. The day was gloriously fine and the local citizens turned out en masse. The railway station was bedecked liberally with allied flags, as also was the reserve. Refreshment stalls were placed in the shade of tall gum trees, while bands of ladies worked assiduously and reaped a splendid harvest of coins. The proceeds were devoted to the obelisk fund, the approximate cost of the memorial being £70.
On the arrival of the Adelaide train at 3.30 pm, school children from Aldgate, Stirling West and Heathfield schools were drawn up as a guard of honour to the visitors. Mr. J. McGuire, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Railways, declared the reserve open and in the course of his speech mentioned that, with a view to encouraging settlement, his department had offered to provide free railway passes to settlers - 'the custom had been continued and to date 130 passes had been accepted.' Subsequently, the Railways Commissioner and other visitors were entertained at a banquet by the committee in the railway goods sheds; Mr. W. Osborne presided.
In April 1922 the following letter appeared in the Advertiser:
About a month ago, two or three letters appeared in the Advertiser asking why the memorial had not been finished... but no one knew why it had never been finished, as the money had been collected some time before, or why it was placed in the railway reserve. Surely the committee with the large sum at its disposal could have chosen something more artistic as a fitting memorial to our brave men. I think it is a disgrace to every member of the committee that it has been left unfinished. Rouse yourselves people of Aldgate and demand that your money be used for the purpose you gave it for.
26 March 1917, page 5h; also see
19 November 1917, page 3g.
Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Agricultural Floricultural and Horticultural Shows.
"The Aldgate Mystery" is in the Express,
3 January 1919, page 3c.
Biographical details of Mrs Caroline Hamence are in the Register,
6 January 1925, page 7c,
of Mrs Flora Carruthers on 29 January 1925, page 6g,
of Edmund Winfield on 30 July 1927, page 11b,
of Charles A. Edmunds in The Critic,
10 May 1922, page 5.
"Beauty Spot of Hills" is in The News,
31 January 1925, page 4d.
Information on the old and new railway bridges is in the Advertiser,
20 January 1925, page 12g.
Biographical details of E.A. Colbey are in the Register,
29 November 1926, page 12a,
of J.M. Barclay on 23 March 1928, page 8g.
A photograph of a football team is in the Chronicle,
18 October 1934, page 39,
1 August 1935, page 38.
Aldgate - Obituaries
Of P.C. Machray on 21 June 1893, page 5a,
of Charles Parry on 15 November 1910, page 4g,
of C.A. Halliday, nurseryman, on 11 November 1924, page 8h,
of Mrs Jane Hannaford on 5 August 1915, page 6g,
of Ernst W. Menzel on 9 March 1917, page 6f,
of H.J. Buik on 29 January 1919, page 6h,
of Mrs Fred. Caley Smith on 11 November 1920, page 6h,
of Mrs Mary J. Harris on 22 December 1924, page 8f,
of Thomas Pearson on 16 January 1926, page 14g,
of John R. Disher on 6 May 1926, page 10c,
of Mrs Mary A. Naughton on 26 June 1926, page 13b,
of Mrs Amelia C. Winfield on 15 July 1926, page 8f,
of Howard Davenport on 24 October 1927, page 11b,
of Mrs Christina Thornley on 6 April 1928, page 9f,
of Robert Searby on 2 January 1929, page 12a.
Of Dr Walter Norman on, 11 May 1918, page 30e,
of C.A. Halliday on 15 November 1924, page 39b,
of Thomas Pearson on 23 January 1926, page 37c,
of Mrs Mary Jane Harris on 8 October 1927, page 49e.
The 'Village of Aldinga' was laid out by Lewis Fidge, farmer of Aldinga, circa 1857. Its school opened in 1852 when W. Quicke was the licensed teacher. Mr Felix de Caux (1822-1877), an early settler in the district said that Aldinga was a corruption of an Aboriginal word meaning 'much water', while other sources suggest it means 'good place for meat', 'open, wide plain' or 'tree district'. A lengthy poem entitled 'Aboriginal Nomenclature by a Native' written by an early resident of McLaren Vale contains a line which says: 'Nal-dinga (open, wide)'.
The district is described in the Observer,
13 April 1844, page 7a:
We have now arrived at Aldinga Bay, or Deception Bay as it was called by Colonel Light, but the deception vanishes when on the beach. It was in this bay that the John Pirie lay to take in slate in 1841 and, a strong southwesterly gale coming on rather suddenly, she went ashore, but was got off again without material damage. Pelicans are pretty numerous here and I picked up some skins on the beach... Surface water [is] scarce on the Aldinga plains and, indeed, this is a great drawback, which is now before the traveller. Keeping along the foot of the range from Mr. Colville's the following are the most important - The glens Perremtekamin-kungga, Wilyahowkinga, Mulawerungga, Kurtan-ddla and Mount Terrible Gully.
Returning and keeping more to the coast we cross the plain called Aldinga (properly Ngaltingga). Close by is the lagoon which dries up in summer and the water of which is salt in the summer. The plain is bounded by small but dense forests on either side - that to the west is called the Southwest corner (from its position from Willunga) and is well known to the kangaroo hunters; that to the east is the Mullawirra (Dry forest - an appropriate name, as indeed, the native names are generally found to be when we get them correctly interpreted), from which the native generally known as King John takes his name Mullawirra - burka.
All the land in the district is fenced and the greater part of it under cultivation and the village, though scattered, contains a great number of houses than a passing traveller would imagine. In addition to the mills we have now
five general stores, six public houses, a district schoolroom and three chapels...
The formation of a Farmers' Club is reported in the Register,
21 June 1851, page 3a and
a ploughing match on
19 July 1851, page 3c,
21 September 1853, page 3b,
Farm & Garden,
9 September 1858, page 51.
11 September 1874, page 3d,
15 September 1883, page 8c.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary & Secondary - Farming - Ploughing matches.
Its school opened in 1852 when W. Quicke was the licensed teacher; it is described in the Register,
27 October 1860, page 3a,
31 July 1874, page 5e.
A new school is described on
29 August 1856, page 2e and
examinations are reported on
28 October 1858, page 3g,
25 October 1862, page 2f.
Information on it is in the Observer,
9 August 1873, page 10g.
The laying of the foundation stone of the Free Presbyterian Church is reported in the Register,
8 May 1856, page 3h and its opening on 18 December 1856, page 2h.
The opening of the Congregational Chapel is reported in the Register,
3 May 1861, page 2h.
Mr Culley's farm is described in the Register,
15 January 1863, page 3f.
The laying of the foundation stone of the Wesleyan Chapel is reported in the Register,
1 August 1963, page 2h,
1 August 1863, page 4h.
Information on a proposed hall is in the Register,
10 and 23 March 1866, pages 2e and 3d.
A report on St Ann's Church is in the Register,
26 January 1867, page 2f.
The funeral of R. Shepherd is reported in the Register,
9 February 1867, page 2g.
A cricket match against Brighton is reported in the Chronicle,
6 March 1869, page 11e;
Aldinga versus Noarlunga, in the Register,
27 February 1873, page 6f.
A history is in the Observer,
26 February 1898, page 14a.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.
A horse race meeting is reported in the Observer,
22 April 1871, page 2g,
18 April 1874, page 4f,
7 January 1875, page 2e.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.
An athletic club meeting is reported in the Chronicle,
15 July 1871, page 11c.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Atheletics and Gymnastics.
A challenge pigeon match is reported in the Express,
1 August 1872, page 2c.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Pigeon Racing and Shooting.
A telegraph extension to the town is reported in the Register,
21 December 1874, page 5e.
"A Marine Excursion to Aldinga" is in the Register,
4 April 1877, page 5g;
a local sports day is reported upon on
4 January 1878, page 5c,
12 January 1889, page 14d.
Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Leisure and Allied Matters.
A complimentary dinner to William Goode is reported in the Register,
10 June 1878, page 6b.
The opening of the Southern Co-op Dairy Factory is reported in the Register,
26 September 1890, page 3e.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary & Secondary - Dairying.
A history of the town and photographs are in the Chronicle,
1 June 1933, pages 33 and 46;
a sketch is in Frearson's Weekly,
15 November 1879, page 335.
The town is described in Parliamentary Paper 66/1886,
28 November 1885, page 35a,
23 March 1892, page 7b,
5 April 1906, page 6c and
"Auld Aldinga" appears on
6 February 1907, page 4e,
19 May 1923, page 5f; also see
10 September 1927, page 44a.
The town is described in the Observer,
4 May 1861, page 4b (supp.),
Parliamentary Paper 66/1886,
28 November 1885, page 35a,
26 March 1892, page 9d,
23 March 1892, page 7b,
5 April 1906, page 6c and
an Aboriginal ochre mine on
25 April 1892, page 7e.
A photograph of a new pavilion is in the Chronicle,
8 April 1905, page 25,
of a football team in the Observer,
22 October 1927, page 36.
The will of Lewis Fidge is discussed in the Chronicle,
8 February 1896, page 17d.
Mr E.L. Fidge's Sweet Pea Farm is described in The Mail,
27 January 1923, page 12c;
his obituary is in the Register,
6 August 1925, page 8g,
8 August 1925, page 28c.
Biographical details of Thomas Pengilly are in the Register,
17 October 1908, page 7c,
of Hyett Shepherd on 29 December 1926, page 11d,
of J.N. Crisp and Thomas Pengilly on 5 September 1927, page 12c.
Aldinga - Obituaries
Of Mrs F. Hart on 13 April 1891, page 4g,
of Gabriel Cox on 19 January 1892, page 5b,
of Henry Lovelock on 13 January 1899, page 7f,
of Levi Lovelock on 10 May 1907, page 5c (also see 14 August 1919, page 6g),
of Duncan Stewart on 17 October 1907, page 5a,
of F. Culley on 22 May 1908, page 7a,
of Mrs William Bowering on 11 July 1912, page 6g,
of Mrs Levi Lovelock on 10 January 1918, page 6h,
of Francis Hart on 2 April 1920, page 6f,
of Mrs Sophia Mumford on 23 February 1926, page 8g,
of Thomas Eatts on 25 July 1927, page 13c.
Of F. Hart on 29 April 1905, page 26c,
of Mrs Gabriel Cox on 22 May 1909, page 38a,
of Francis Hart on 10 April 1920, page 27b,
of Thomas Pengilly on 23 May 1925, page 9c,
of Thomas Eatts on 30 July 1927, page 10b,
of a headmaster, T.W. Walters, on 7 March 1903, page 33c.
Alexander, MountRoyal Geographical Society Proceedings Vol 8, page 15 says it was discovered and named by John Ross -
this is confirmed by extracts from Alfred Giles' records which are quoted on page 17.